Properties of a substance that depend on the amount of matter present are extensive properties, e.g., volume of any object is directly proportional to the mass of the object. Density is an intensive property that doesn't depend on the mass of the object. The density ρ can be defined as the ratio of the mass of the body to its volume.
To determine the density of the material of an object, we have to find its mass and volume. The mass can be measured using a digital balance with high accuracy.
- For solid objects with a regular shape (block, cylinder, and sphere), we can calculate their volume by direct measurement of their dimensions.
- For a Solid object with an irregular shape, we will use the displaced liquid method to determine the volume of the object.
- For liquids, we place a graduated glass beaker over the electronic digital balance and tare its reading. Then slowly pour the liquid under investigation into the glass beaker while being over the balance. The reading of the balance gives the mass of the liquid added to the glass beaker, while the volume of the liquid is read off the glass beaker scale.