Standardization of Potassium Permanganate | PraxiLabs

Standardization of Potassium Permanganate Virtual Lab Simulation

Chemistry | Analytical Chemistry

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Standardization of Potassium Permanganate Virtual Lab

General Aim of Standardization of Potassium Permanganate

To determine the strength of potassium permanganate with a standard oxalic acid solution.

Method of Standardization of Potassium Permanganate

Determination of potassium permanganate by redox titration.

Objectives of Standardization of Potassium Permanganate Experiment

  • <p>Define direct titration.

  • Define the meaning of a standard solution. Differentiate between primary and secondary standards.

  • Predict how a certain sample could be analyzed.

  • Determine the strength of potassium permanganate with a standard oxalic acid solution.

  • Perform titration with the control of the temperature.

  • Calculate the molarity and the strength of a given standard based on a similar procedure.</p>

Theory of Standardization of Potassium Permanganate

Quantitative analysis deals with the determination of the quantity of the substance to be analyzed. Methods of quantitative analysis may be classified into:

  1. Gravimetric analysis: It depends on isolating and weighing of the final product with known pure, stable and definite form.
  2. Instrumental analysis: It depends on measuring some physical properties which change quantitatively with changing concentration of sample.
  3. Volumetric analysis (Titration): It depends on measuring volume of standard solution (titrant) used for complete reaction with the sample.

Titration is the capacity of the sample to combine with the suitable standard quantitatively through quantitative reaction. A quantitative reaction: Is the reaction that proceeds forward to produce stable product(s) such as weakly ionizable compounds, e.g. H2O, weak acids & base, sparingly soluble salts (precipitate), complex ion, etc. The types of quantitative Reactions can be:

- Neutralization Reactions:

  • H2O formation.          
  • Displacement: Formation of weak acid or weak base.

- Complexometric reactions.

- Redox reactions (Electron transfer).

- Preciptimetric reactions.

Any sample is a solution of unknown concentration and a Standard is a solution of exactly known concentration. The requirements of titrimetric reactions are:

  • The reaction must be simple and expressed by a chemical equation.
  •  A single reaction must occur between the sample and titrant.
  • The reaction must be instantaneous (rapid).
  • Suitable standard solutions must be available.
  • The end point should be easily detected.

Oxidation is loss of electrons and increase in valency number, gain of oxygen or loss of hydrogen:
      Fe2+ →Fe3+ + e-1
Reduction is gain of electrons and reduction in valency number, loss of oxygen or gain of hydrogen:
     Fe3+ + e-1→Fe2+ , Fe2+ + 2e-1 → Fe0
Oxidizing agent or oxidant is the substance that gain electrons:
     Ex: KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, Ce(SO4)2
Reducing agent or reductant is the substance that donate (lose) electrons:

    FeSO4, Na2S2O3, H2C2O4

Principle | Standardization of Potassium Permanganate Virtual Experiment

This experiment is a redox titration where potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is the titrant and oxalic acid is the analyte. Also, KMnO4 is the oxidizing agent and oxalic acid is the reducing agent. The reaction between KMnO4 and oxalic acid is carried out in an acidic medium because permanganate ion in the acidic medium is a very strong oxidizing agent. Acidity is introduced by adding dil. H2SO4. 
No indicators are used to determine the endpoint, because KMnO4 is a self-indicator.Permanganate (MnO4-) ion has a dark purple colour. In an acidic medium, MnO4- is reduced to colorless manganous (Mn2+) ions. On reaching the end point, the addition of the last single drop of permanganate imparts a light purple colour to the solution.
2MnO4- + 5 C2O4- -  + 16H +  = 10CO2 + 2Mn + + + 8H2O


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